|XP3A's QSL card|
Interestingly, a VE4 was suffering -4Hz Doppler just now (signal again passing through auroral oval?). I often see large Doppler shifts on signals crossing the Equator (e.g. on FR1GZ) and I assumes this is due to moving F layers (spread F) as signals cross the magnetic Equator. I would expect TEP signals to have considerable Doppler too.