The very long paths on 6m JT65 are intriguing me. The common wisdom is these are "multi-hop sporadic E". Sorry, but I just don't believe it.
Some paths may be multi-hop Es sometimes (e.g. to Israel) but I think we are seeing some other sort of E layer propagation, maybe some sort of chordal hop? The Far East spots may be due to mesospheric cloud ionisation?
Some of the very long 6m paths may be pirates, but the Japanese spots are genuine and have occurred several times already in the last few weeks.
I am no propagation expert, but would love to hear from experts who might really know what is going on.
We are in 2017 and there are still unsolved mysteries.
What amazes me is there appears to be no-one trying to span Europe to Japan on higher VHF bands or even microwaves. This path opens every year at this time on 6m and should be possible at higher frequencies especially with big antennas and high power such as stations equipped for 23cm EME. Suitably equipped stations know where to beam, know when, know the best times. So? If you are suitably equipped set up some skeds!
See https://sites.google.com/site/g3xbmqrp3/vuhf/noctilucent .